CSS Drop Down Menu by

Publications → Papers → References

Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity. Herranz-López, M., Olivares-Vicente, M., Encinar, J.A., Barrajón-Catalán, E., Segura-Carretero, A., Joven, J. and Micol, V. 2017. Nutrients, 9(8), 907.

  1. Luna-Luna, M.; Medina-Urrutia, A.; Vargas-Alarcon, G.; Coss-Rovirosa, F.; Vargas-Barron, J.; Perez-Mendez, O. Adipose tissue in metabolic syndrome: Onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Arch. Med. Res. 2015, 46.
  2. Grundy, S.M. Metabolic syndrome: Connecting and reconciling cardiovascular and diabetes worlds. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2006, 47, 1093–1100.
  3. Okada-Iwabu, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Iwabu, M.; Honma, T.; Hamagami, K.; Matsuda, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tanabe, H.; Kimura-Someya, T.; Shirouzu, M.; et al. A small-molecule adipor agonist for type 2 diabetes and short life in obesity. Nature 2013, 503, 493–499.
  4. Rise, M.B.; Pellerud, A.; Rygg, L.Ø.; Steinsbekk, A. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e64009.
  5. Eckel, R.H.; Alberti, K.; Grundy, S.M.; Zimmet, P.Z. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005, 365, 1415–1428.
  6. Ahmadian, M.; Suh, J.M.; Hah, N.; Liddle, C.; Atkins, A.R.; Downes, M.; Evans, R.M. PPARgamma signaling and metabolism: The good, the bad and the future. Nature 2013, 19, 557–566.
  7. Leite, C.E.; Mocelin, C.A.; Petersen, G.O.; Leal, M.B.; Thiesen, F.V. Rimonabant: An antagonist drug of the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of obesity. Pharmacol Rep. 2009, 61, 217–224.
  8. Heck, A.M.; Yanovski, J.A.; Calis, K.A. Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy 2000, 20, 270–279.
  9. Menendez, J.A.; Joven, J.; Aragones, G.; Barrajon-Catalan, E.; Beltran-Debon, R.; Borras-Linares, I.; Camps, J.; Corominas-Faja, B.; Cufi, S.; Fernandez-Arroyo, S.; et al. Xenohormetic and anti-aging activity of secoiridoid polyphenols present in extra virgin olive oil: A new family of gerosuppressant agents. Cell Cycle 2013, 12, 555–578.
  10. Barrajon-Catalan, E.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Joven, J.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Menendez, J.A.; Micol, V. Molecular promiscuity of plant polyphenols in the management of age-related diseases: Far beyond their antioxidant properties. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2014, 824, 141–159.
  11. Beltran-Debon, R.; Rull, A.; Rodriguez-Sanabria, F.; Iswaldi, I.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Aragones, G.; Camps, J.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Menendez, J.A.; Micol, V.; et al. Continuous administration of polyphenols from aqueous rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract ameliorates dietary-induced metabolic disturbances in hyperlipidemic mice. Phytomedicine 2011, 18, 414–424.
  12. Herranz-López, M.; Barrajón-Catalán, E.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Menéndez, J.A.; Joven, J.; Micol, V. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) polyphenols alleviate obesity-related disturbances in hypertrophic adipocytes through AMPK-dependent mechanisms. Phytomedicine 2015, 22, 605–614.
  13. Ali, F.; Ismail, A.; Kersten, S. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2014, 58, 33–48.
  14. Amiot, M.J.; Riva, C.; Vinet, A. Effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolic syndrome features in humans: A systematic review. Obes. Rev. 2016, 17, 573–586.
  15. Wang, S.; Moustaid-Moussa, N.; Chen, L.; Mo, H.; Shastri, A.; Su, R.; Bapat, P.; Kwun, I.; Shen, C.L. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2014, 25, 1–18.
  16. Halliwell, B.; Rafter, J.; Jenner, A. Health promotion by flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: Direct or indirect effects? Antioxidant or not? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005, 81, 268S–276S.
  17. Beltran-Debon, R.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Aragones, G.; Rodriguez-Medina, I.; Rull, A.; Micol, V.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, A.; Camps, J.; Joven, J. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans. Phytomedicine 2010, 17, 186–191.
  18. Fernández-Arroyo, S.; Rodríguez-Medina, I.C.; Beltrán-Debón, R.; Pasini, F.; Joven, J.; Micol, V.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. Quantification of the polyphenolic fraction and in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-hyperlipemic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract. Food Res. Int. 2011, 44, 1490–1495.
  19. Fernandez-Arroyo, S.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Beltran-Debon, R.; Borras-Linares, I.; Barrajon-Catalan, E.; Joven, J.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, A.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Micol, V. Bioavailability study of a polyphenol-enriched extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in rats and associated antioxidant status. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2012, 56, 1590–1595.
  20. Herranz-Lopez, M.; Fernandez-Arroyo, S.; Perez-Sanchez, A.; Barrajon-Catalan, E.; Beltran-Debon, R.; Menendez, J.A.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Joven, J.; Micol, V. Synergism of plant-derived polyphenols in adipogenesis: Perspectives and implications. Phytomedicine 2012, 19, 253–261.
  21. Joven, J.; Espinel, E.; Rull, A.; Aragones, G.; Rodriguez-Gallego, E.; Camps, J.; Micol, V.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Menendez, J.A.; Borras, I.; et al. Plant-derived polyphenols regulate expression of mirna paralogs mir-103/107 and mir-122 and prevent diet-induced fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2012, 1820, 894–899.
  22. Joven, J.; March, I.; Espinel, E.; Fernandez-Arroyo, S.; Rodriguez-Gallego, E.; Aragones, G.; Beltran-Debon, R.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Rios, L.; Martin-Paredero, V.; et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2014, 58, 1374–1378.
  23. Villalpando-Arteaga, E.V.; Mendieta-Condado, E.; Esquivel-Solis, H.; Canales-Aguirre, A.A.; Galvez-Gastelum, F.J.; Mateos-Diaz, J.C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, J.A.; Marquez-Aguirre, A.L. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous extract attenuates hepatic steatosis through down-regulation of PPAR-gamma and srebp-1c in diet-induced obese mice. Food Funct. 2013, 4, 618–626.
  24. Yang, M.Y.; Peng, C.H.; Chan, K.C.; Yang, Y.S.; Huang, C.N.; Wang, C.J. The hypolipidemic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting hepatic lipid clearance. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 850–859.
  25. Howitz, K.T.; Sinclair, D.A. Xenohormesis: Sensing the chemical cues of other species. Cell 2008, 133, 387–391.
  26. Lamming, D.W.; Wood, J.G.; Sinclair, D.A. Small molecules that regulate lifespan: Evidence for xenohormesis. Mol. Microbiol. 2004, 53, 1003–1009.
  27. Falcone Ferreyra, M.L.; Rius, S.P.; Casati, P. Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications. Front. Plant Sci. 2012, 3, 222.
  28. Cramer, G.R.; Urano, K.; Delrot, S.; Pezzotti, M.; Shinozaki, K. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: A systems biology perspective. BMC Plant Biol. 2011, 11, 163.
  29. Hooper, P.L.; Hooper, P.L.; Tytell, M.; Vígh, L. Xenohormesis: Health benefits from an eon of plant stress response evolution. Cell Stress Chaperones 2010, 15, 761–770.
  30. Pandey, K.B.; Rizvi, S.I. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2009, 2, 270–278.
  31. Lima, G.; Vianello, F.; Corrêa, C.; Campos, R.; Borguini, M. Polyphenols in fruits and vegetables and its effect on human health. Food Nutr. Sci. 2014, 5, 1065–1082.
  32. Manach, C.; Scalbert, A.; Morand, C.; Rémésy, C.; Jiménez, L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004, 79, 727–747.
  33. Scalbert, A.; Williamson, G. Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J. Nutr. 2000, 130, 2073s–2085s.
  34. Devalaraja, S.; Jain, S.; Yadav, H. Exotic fruits as therapeutic complements for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Food Res. Int. 2011, 44, 1856–1865.
  35. Tufts, H.R.; Harris, C.S.; Bukania, Z.N.; Johns, T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of kenyan leafy green vegetables, wild fruits, and medicinal plants with potential relevance for kwashiorkor. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2015, 2015, 807158.
  36. Brglez Mojzer, E.; Knez Hrncic, M.; Skerget, M.; Knez, Z.; Bren, U. Polyphenols: Extraction methods, antioxidative action, bioavailability and anticarcinogenic effects. Molecules 2016, 21, 901.
  37. Rodriguez-Medina, I.C.; Beltran-Debon, R.; Molina, V.M.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Joven, J.; Menendez, J.A.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, A. Direct characterization of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa using HPLC with diode array detection coupled to ESI and ion trap MS. J. Sep. Sci. 2009, 32, 3441–3448.
  38. Serban, C.; Sahebkar, A.; Ursoniu, S.; Andrica, F.; Banach, M. Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Hypertens. 2015, 33, 1119–1127.
  39. Chin, K.L.; Zhen, J.; Qi, Y.; Chin, S.L.; Breithaupt, M.; Wu, Q.L.; Simon, J.; Henson, J.; Ferchaud, V. A comparative evaluation: Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of three roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) accessions. Acta. Hortic. 2016, 1125, 99–107.
  40. Sindi, H.A.; Marshall, L.J.; Morgan, M.R.A. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Food Chem. 2014, 164, 23–29.
  41. Villani, T.; Juliani, H.R.; Simon, J.E.; Wu, Q.L. Hibiscus sabdariffa: Phytochemistry, quality control and health properties. ACS Symp. Ser. 2013, 1127, 209–230.
  42. Huang, W.Y.; Zhang, H.C.; Liu, W.X.; Li, C.Y. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 2012, 13, 94–102.
  43. Bowen-Forbes, C.S.; Zhang, Y.; Nair, M.G. Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits. Food Comp. Anal. 2010, 23, 554–560.
  44. Chang, Y.C.; Huang, K.X.; Huang, A.C.; Ho, Y.C.; Wang, C.J. Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2006, 44, 1015–1023.
  45. Tsai, P.J.; McIntosh, J.; Pearce, P.; Camden, B.; Jordan, B.R. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in roselle (HHibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract. Food Res. Int. 2002, 35, 351–356.
  46. Mahdavi, S.A.; Jafari, S.M.; Ghorbani, M.; Assadpoor, E. Spray-drying microencapsulation of anthocyanins by natural biopolymers: A review. Drying Technol. 2014, 32, 509–518.
  47. Avior, Y.; Bomze, D.; Ramon, O.; Nahmias, Y. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Food Funct. 2013, 4, 831–844.
  48. Joven, J.; Micol, V.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Alonso-Villaverde, C.; Menéndez, J.A.; Aragonès, G.; Barrajón-Catalán, E.; Beltrán-Debón, R.; Camps, J.; Cufí, S.; et al. Polyphenols and the modulation of gene expression pathways: Can we eat our way out of the danger of chronic disease? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2014, 54, 985–1001.
  49. Ezzat, S.M.; Salama, M.M.; Seif El-Din, S.H.; Saleh, S.; El-Lakkany, N.M.; Hammam, O.A.; Salem, M.B.; Botros, S.S. Metabolic profile and hepatoprotective activity of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces. Pharm. Biol. 2016, 54, 3172–3181.
  50. Borrás-Linares, I.; Herranz-López, M.; Barrajón-Catalán, E.; Arráez-Román, D.; González-Álvarez, I.; Bermejo, M.; Gutiérrez, A.F.; Micol, V.; Segura-Carretero, A. Permeability study of polyphenols derived from a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-QQ-TOF-MS. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 18396–18411.
  51. Muller, B.M.; Franz, G. Chemical structure and biological activity of polysaccharides from Hibiscus sabdariffa. Planta Med. 1992, 58, 60–67.
  52. Sayago-Ayerdi, S.G.; Arranz, S.; Serrano, J.; Goni, I. Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 7886–7890.
  53. Beltran-Debon, R.; Rodriguez-Gallego, E.; Fernandez-Arroyo, S.; Senan-Campos, O.; Massucci, F.A.; Hernandez-Aguilera, A.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Guimera, R.; Camps, J.; Menendez, J.A.; et al. The acute impact of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in metabolic homeostasis: An approach combining metabolomics and gene-expression analyses. Food Funct. 2015, 6, 2957–2966.
  54. Efferth, T.; Koch, E. Complex interactions between phytochemicals. The multi-target therapeutic concept of phytotherapy. Curr. Drug Targets 2011, 12, 122–132.
  55. Yang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Li, S.; Ye, X.; Li, X.; He, K. Synergy effects of herb extracts: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic basis. Fitoterapia 2014, 92, 133–147.
  56. Gertsch, J. Botanical drugs, synergy, and network pharmacology: Forth and back to intelligent mixtures. Planta Med. 2011, 77, 1086–1098.
  57. Keith, C.T.; Borisy, A.A.; Stockwell, B.R. Multicomponent therapeutics for networked systems. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2005, 4, 71–78.
  58. Wagner, H.; Ulrich-Merzenich, G. Synergy research: Approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine 2009, 16, 97–110.
  59. Olsen, E.K.; Søderholm, K.L.; Isaksson, J.; Andersen, J.H.; Hansen, E. Metabolomic profiling reveals the n-acyl-taurine geodiataurine in extracts from the marine sponge Geodia macandrewii (Bowerbank). J. Nat. Prod. 2016, 79, 1285–1291.
  60. Frank, T.; Janssen, M.; Netzel, M.; Strass, G.; Kler, A.; Kriesl, E.; Bitsch, I. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanidin-3-glycosides following consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Extract. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2005, 45, 203–210.
  61. Nemeth, K.; Piskula, M.K. Food content, processing, absorption and metabolism of onion flavonoids. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2007, 47, 397–409.
  62. Del Mar Contreras, M.; Borras-Linares, I.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Micol, V.; Segura-Carretero, A. Further exploring the absorption and enterocyte metabolism of quercetin forms in the caco-2 model using NANO-LC-TOF-MS. Electrophoresis 2016, 37, 998–1006.
  63. Herranz-López, M.; Borrás-Linares, I.; Olivares-Vicente, M.; Gálvez, J.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Micol, V. Correlation between the cellular metabolism of quercetin and its glucuronide metabolite and oxidative stress in hypertrophied 3t3-l1 adipocytes. Phytomedicine 2017, 25, 25–28.
  64. Bandyopadhyay, P.; Ghosh, A.K.; Ghosh, C. Recent developments on polyphenol-protein interactions: Effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. Food Funct. 2012, 3, 592–605.
  65. Hansawasdi, C.; Kawabata, J.; Kasai, T. alpha-amylase inhibitors from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) tea. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2000, 64, 1041–1043.
  66. Hansawasdi, C.; Kawabata, J.; Kasai, T. Hibiscus acid as an inhibitor of starch digestion in the caco-2 cell model system. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2001, 65, 2087–2089.
  67. Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P.M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipolito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D.M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M.G.; Pedroza-Hernandez, M.F.; et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. Dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 2009, 5.
  68. Rodina, A.V.; Severin, S.E. The role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and approach to therapy. Patol. Fiziol. Eksp. Ter. 2013, 15–26.
  69. Encinar, J.A.; Fernandez-Ballester, G.; Galiano-Ibarra, V.; Micol, V. In silico approach for the discovery of new ppargamma modulators among plant-derived polyphenols. Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 2015, 9, 5877–5895.
  70. Galiano, V.; Garcia-Valtanen, P.; Micol, V.; Encinar, J.A. Looking for inhibitors of the dengue virus ns5 rna-dependent rna-polymerase using a molecular docking approach. Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 2016, 10, 3163–3181.
  71. Priscilla, D.H.; Roy, D.; Suresh, A.; Kumar, V.; Thirumurugan, K. Naringenin inhibits alpha-glucosidase activity: A promising strategy for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia in high fat diet fed streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2014, 210, 77–85.
  72. Murphy, M.P. How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochem. J. 2009, 417, 1–13.
  73. Ray, P.D.; Huang, B.W.; Tsuji, Y. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and redox regulation in cellular signaling. Cell. Signal. 2012, 24, 981–990.
  74. Skonieczna, M.; Hejmo, T.; Poterala-Hejmo, A.; Cieslar-Pobuda, A.; Buldak, R.J. NADPH oxidases: Insights into selected functions and mechanisms of action in cancer and stem cells. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 2017, 9420539.
  75. Furukawa, S.; Fujita, T.; Shimabukuro, M.; Iwaki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakayama, O.; Makishima, M.; Matsuda, M.; Shimomura, I. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J. Clin. Invest. 2004, 114, 1752–1761.
  76. Yeop Han, C.; Kargi, A.Y.; Omer, M.; Chan, C.K.; Wabitsch, M.; O'Brien, K.D.; Wight, T.N.; Chait, A. Differential effect of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids on the generation of monocyte adhesion and chemotactic factors by adipocytes: Dissociation of adipocyte hypertrophy from inflammation. Diabetes 2010, 59, 386–396.
  77. Sakurai, T.; Ogasawara, J.; Shirato, K.; Izawa, T.; Oh-Ishi, S.; Ishibashi, Y.; Radak, Z.; Ohno, H.; Kizaki, T. Exercise training attenuates the dysregulated expression of adipokines and oxidative stress in white adipose tissue. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 2017, 9410954.
  78. Yang, L.; Gou, Y.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, J.; Li, F.; Zhang, B.; Wu, X. Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2012, 11, 4063–4068.
  79. Tseng, T.H.; Kao, E.S.; Chu, C.Y.; Chou, F.P.; Lin Wu, H.W.; Wang, C.J. Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1997, 35, 1159–1164.
  80. Ajiboye, T.O.; Salawu, N.A.; Yakubu, M.T.; Oladiji, A.T.; Akanji, M.A.; Okogun, J.I. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 2011, 34, 109–115.
  81. Farombi, E.O.; Fakoya, A. Free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic activities of natural phenolic compounds in dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2005, 49, 1120–1128.
  82. Essa, M.M.; Subramanian, P. Hibiscus sabdariffa affects ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2007, 4, 321–325.
  83. Farombi, E.O.; Ige, O.O. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 2007, 21, 601–609.
  84. Ekor, M.; Adesanoye, O.A.; Udo, I.E.; Adegoke, O.A.; Raji, J.; Farombi, E.O. Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extract protects against dyslipidemia and oxidative stress induced by chronic cholesterol administration in rabbits. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2010, 39, 161–170.
  85. Adeyemi, D.O.; Ukwenya, V.O.; Obuotor, E.M.; Adewole, S.O. Anti-hepatotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. In animal model of streptozotocin diabetes-induced liver damage. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 2014, 14, 277.
  86. Ajiboye, T.O.; Raji, H.O.; Adeleye, A.O.; Adigun, N.S.; Giwa, O.B.; Ojewuyi, O.B.; Oladiji, A.T. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2016, 96, 1522–1531.
  87. Zuniga-Munoz, A.; Guarner, V.; Diaz-Cruz, A.; Diaz-Diaz, E.; Beltran-Rodriguez, U.; Perez-Torres, I. Modulation of oxidative stress in fatty liver of rat with metabolic syndrome by Hibiscus sabdariffa. Immunol. Endocr. Metab. Agents Med. Chem 2013, 13, 196–205.
  88. Greenberg, A.S.; Obin, M.S. Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006, 83, 461s–465s.
  89. Kang, Y.E.; Kim, J.M.; Joung, K.H.; Lee, J.H.; You, B.R.; Choi, M.J.; Ryu, M.J.; Ko, Y.B.; Lee, M.A.; Lee, J.; et al. The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance in modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0154003.
  90. O'Neill, S.; O'Driscoll, L. Metabolic syndrome: A closer look at the growing epidemic and its associated pathologies. Obes. Rev. 2015, 16, 1–12.
  91. Cancello, R.; Clement, K. Is obesity an inflammatory illness? Role of low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in human white adipose tissue. Bjog 2006, 113, 1141–1147.
  92. Marseglia, L.; Manti, S.; D'Angelo, G.; Nicotera, A.; Parisi, E.; Di Rosa, G.; Gitto, E.; Arrigo, T. Oxidative stress in obesity: A critical component in human diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 16, 378–400.
  93. Kao, E.S.; Hsu, J.D.; Wang, C.J.; Yang, S.H.; Cheng, S.Y.; Lee, H.J. Polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa l. Inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by improving antioxidative conditions and regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2009, 73, 385–390.
  94. Hashimoto, K.; Ichiyama, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Matsubara, T.; Furukawa, S. Cysteinyl leukotrienes induce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human monocyte/macrophages via mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappab pathways. Int. Arch. Allergy. Immunol. 2009, 149, 275–282.
  95. Hopkins, A.L.; Lamm, M.G.; Funk, J.L.; Ritenbaugh, C. Hibiscus sabdariffa l. In the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: A comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Fitoterapia 2013, 85, 84–94.
  96. Herrera-Arellano, A.; Miranda-Sanchez, J.; Avila-Castro, P.; Herrera-Alvarez, S.; Jimenez-Ferrer, J.E.; Zamilpa, A.; Roman-Ramos, R.; Ponce-Monter, H.; Tortoriello, J. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med. 2007, 73, 6–12.
  97. Nwachukwu, D.C.; Aneke, E.; Nwachukwu, N.Z.; Obika, L.F.; Nwagha, U.I.; Eze, A.A. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffaon blood pressure and electrolyte profile of mild to moderate hypertensive nigerians: A comparative study with hydrochlorothiazide. Niger. J. Clin. Pract. 2015, 18, 762–770.
  98. Perez-Torres, I.; Ruiz-Ramirez, A.; Banos, G.; El-Hafidi, M. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae), curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc. Hematol. Agents Med. Chem. 2013, 11, 25–37.
  99. Alarcon-Aguilar, F.J.; Zamilpa, A.; Perez-Garcia, M.D.; Almanza-Perez, J.C.; Romero-Nunez, E.; Campos-Sepulveda, E.A.; Vazquez-Carrillo, L.I.; Roman-Ramos, R. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in msg mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 114, 66–71.
  100. Gurrola-Díaz, C.M.; García-López, P.M.; Sánchez-Enríquez, S.; Troyo-Sanromán, R.; Andrade-González, I.; Gómez-Leyva, J.F. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract powder and preventive treatment (diet) on the lipid profiles of patients with metabolic syndrome (mesy). Phytomedicine 2010, 17, 500–505.
  101. Gosain, S.; Ircchiaya, R.; Sharma, P.C.; Thareja, S.; Kalra, A.; Deep, A.; Bhardwaj, T.R. Hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hyperlipidemic rats. Acta. Pol. Pharm. 2010, 67, 179–184.
  102. Ochani, P.C.; D'Mello, P. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn. Leaves and calyces extracts in rats. Indian. J. Exp. Biol. 2009, 47, 276–282.
  103. Srivastava, R.A.K.; Pinkosky, S.L.; Filippov, S.; Hanselman, J.C.; Cramer, C.T.; Newton, R.S. AMP-activated protein kinase: An emerging drug target to regulate imbalances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism to treat cardio-metabolic diseases: Thematic review series: New lipid and lipoprotein targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. J. Lipid. Res. 2012, 53, 2490–2514.
  104. Yamauchi, T.; Kamon, J.; Minokoshi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Waki, H.; Uchida, S.; Yamashita, S.; Noda, M.; Kita, S.; Ueki, K.; et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat. Med. 2002, 8, 1288–1295.
  105. Calleri, E.; Pochetti, G.; Dossou, K.S.S.; Laghezza, A.; Montanari, R.; Capelli, D.; Prada, E.; Loiodice, F.; Massolini, G.; Bernier, M.; et al. Resveratrol and its metabolites bind to PPARs. Chembiochem 2014, 15, 1154–1160.
  106. Lu, K.; Han, M.; Ting, H.L.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, D. Scutellarin from Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses adipogenesis by upregulating pparalpha in 3T3-L1 cells. J. Nat. Prod. 2013, 76, 672–678.
  107. Laghezza, A.; Montanari, R.; Lavecchia, A.; Piemontese, L.; Pochetti, G.; Iacobazzi, V.; Infantino, V.; Capelli, D.; De Bellis, M.; Liantonio, A.; et al. On the metabolically active form of metaglidasen: Improved synthesis and investigation of its peculiar activity on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and skeletal muscles. ChemMedChem 2015, 10, 555–565.
  108. Vanden Berghe, W. Epigenetic impact of dietary polyphenols in cancer chemoprevention: Lifelong remodeling of our epigenomes. Pharmacol. Res. 2012, 65, 565–576.
  109. Li, W.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Yang, A.Y.; Gaspar, J.; Kong, A.N.T. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: A perspective on oxidative stress, inflammation, and epigenetics. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2016, 29, 2071–2095.
  110. Thakur, V.S.; Deb, G.; Babcook, M.A.; Gupta, S. Plant phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators: Role in cancer chemoprevention. AAPS J. 2014, 16, 151–163.
  111. Pan, M.H.; Lai, C.S.; Wu, J.C.; Ho, C.T. Epigenetic and disease targets by polyphenols. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2013, 19, 6156–6185.
  112. Bhat, M.I.; Kapila, R. Dietary metabolites derived from gut microbiota: Critical modulators of epigenetic changes in mammals. Nutr. Rev. 2017, 75, 374–389.
  113. Stilling, R.M.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. Microbial genes, brain & behaviour-epigenetic regulation of the gut-brain axis. Genes Brain Behav. 2014, 13, 69–86.
  114. Ruiz, P.A.; Braune, A.; Hölzlwimmer, G.; Quintanilla-Fend, L.; Haller, D. Quercetin inhibits tnf-induced nf-kb transcription factor recruitment to proinflammatory gene promoters in murine intestinal epithelial cells. J. Nutr. 2007, 137, 1208–1215.
  115. Rottiers, V.; Naar, A.M. Micrornas in metabolism and metabolic disorders. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2012, 13, 239–250.
  116. Guardiola, S.; Mach, N. Therapeutic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa: A review of the scientific evidence. Endocrinol. Nutr. 2014, 63, 274–295.
  117. Hardie, D.G. AMP-activated protein kinase: An energy sensor that regulates all aspects of cell function. Genes Dev. 2011, 25, 1895–1908.
  118. Jimenez-Sanchez, C.; Olivares-Vicente, M.; Rodriguez-Perez, C.; Herranz-Lopez, M.; Lozano-Sanchez, J.; Segura Carretero, A.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, A.; Micol, V. AMPK modulatory activity of olive–tree leaves phenolic compounds: Bioassay-guided isolation on adipocyte model and in silico approach. PLoS ONE 2017.
  119. Hardwicke, M.A.; Rendina, A.R.; Williams, S.P.; Moore, M.L.; Wang, L.; Krueger, J.A.; Plant, R.N.; Totoritis, R.D.; Zhang, G.; Briand, J.; et al. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds beta-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2014, 10, 774–779.
  120. Piemontese, L. Plant food supplements with antioxidant properties for the treatment of chronic and neurodegenerative diseases: Benefits or risks? J. Diet Suppl. 2017, 14, 478–484.